lunes, 5 de octubre de 2009

Unidad IV. Patrones de Organización de un Párrafo

Introducción

Los patrones de organización de un párrafo, sirve para identificar las principales caracteristicas de una definición, así mismo para narrar eventos siguiendo los marcadores del discurso de un patrón de ordenamiento de texto. Dichos patrones son: Marcadores de Definición, Marcadores de Secuencia y Marcadores de Tiempo.

Texto en Ingles:
A computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a set of instructions.
Although mechanical examples of computers have existed through much of recorded human history, the first electronic computers were developed in the mid-20th century (1940–1945). These were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers (
PCs). Modern computers based on integrated circuits are millions to billions of times more capable than the early machines, and occupy a fraction of the space. Simple computers are small enough to fit into a wristwatch, and can be powered by a watch battery. Personal computers in their various forms are icons of the Information Age and are what most people think of as "computers". The embedded computers found in many devices from MP3 players to fighter aircraft and from toys to industrial robots are however the most numerous.
The ability to store and execute lists of instructions called
programs makes computers extremely versatile, distinguishing them from calculators. The Church–Turing thesis is a mathematical statement of this versatility: any computer with a certain minimum capability is, in principle, capable of performing the same tasks that any other computer can perform. Therefore computers ranging from a mobile phone to a supercomputer are all able to perform the same computational tasks, given enough time and storage capacity.
History of computing
The first use of the word "computer" was recorded in 1613, referring to a person who carried out calculations, or computations, and the word continued to be used in that sense until the middle of the 20th century. From the end of the 19th century onwards though, the word began to take on its more familiar meaning, describing a machine that carries out computations.

The history of the modern computer begins with two separate technologies—automated calculation and programmability—but no single device can be identified as the earliest computer, partly because of the inconsistent application of that term. Examples of early mechanical calculating devices include the abacus, the slide rule and arguably the astrolabe and the Antikythera mechanism (which dates from about 150–100 BC). Hero of Alexandria (c. 10–70 AD) built a mechanical theater which performed a play lasting 10 minutes and was operated by a complex system of ropes and drums that might be considered to be a means of deciding which parts of the mechanism performed which actions and when. This is the essence of programmability.
The "castle clock", an
astronomical clock invented by Al-Jazari in 1206, is considered to be the earliest programmable analog computer.It displayed the zodiac, the solar and lunar orbits, a crescent moon-shaped pointer travelling across a gateway causing automatic doors to open every hour, and five robotic musicians who played music when struck by levers operated by a camshaft attached to a water wheel. The length of day and night could be re-programmed to compensate for the changing lengths of day and night throughout the year.
The Renaissance saw a re-invigoration of European mathematics and engineering. Wilhelm Schickard's 1623 device was the first of a number of mechanical calculators constructed by European engineers, but none fit the modern definition of a computer, because they could not be programmed.
In 1801,
Joseph Marie Jacquard made an improvement to the textile loom by introducing a series of punched paper cards as a template which allowed his loom to weave intricate patterns automatically. The resulting Jacquard loom was an important step in the development of computers because the use of punched cards to define woven patterns can be viewed as an early, albeit limited, form of programmability.
It was the fusion of automatic calculation with programmability that produced the first recognizable computers. In 1837,
Charles Babbage was the first to conceptualize and design a fully programmable mechanical computer, his analytical engine.Limited finances and Babbage's inability to resist tinkering with the design meant that the device was never completed.In the late 1880s, Herman Hollerith invented the recording of data on a machine readable medium. Prior uses of machine readable media, above, had been for control, not data. "After some initial trials with paper tape, he settled on punched cards ..." To process these punched cards he invented the tabulator, and the keypunch machines. These three inventions were the foundation of the modern information processing industry. Large-scale automated data processing of punched cards was performed for the 1890 United States Census by Hollerith's company, which later became the core of IBM. By the end of the 19th century a number of technologies that would later prove useful in the realization of practical computers had begun to appear: the punched card, Boolean algebra, the vacuum tube (thermionic valve) and the teleprinter.


Marcadores de Definición:

This is
Is
is considered
are

Marcadores de Secuencia

First
Later
After

Marcadores de tiempo

recorded in 1613
From the end of the 19th century
In 1801By the end of the 19th century

Traducción

Una Computadora es una maquina que manipula datos de acuerdo a un conjunto de instrucciones.
Aunque los ejemplos mecánica de los equipos han existido durante gran parte de la historia humana, las primeras computadoras electrónicas se desarrollaron en el siglo de (1940-1945). Estos eran del tamaño de una habitación grande, consumiendo tanta energía como varios cientos de computadoras modernas personales (PC).computadoras modernas, basadas en circuitos integrados son millones a miles de millones de veces más poderoso que las primeras máquinas, y ocupar una fracción de el espacio.simples ordenadores son lo suficientemente pequeños para caber en un reloj de pulsera, y puede ser alimentado por una batería del reloj. ordenadores personales en sus diversas formas son iconos de la era de la información y lo que la mayoría de la gente piensa como "ordenadores". Los ordenadores integrados en los dispositivos de muchos de los reproductores de MP3 a aviones de combate y de los juguetes de los robots industriales son, sin embargo los más numerosos

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