miércoles, 7 de octubre de 2009

Trabajo Final

Introducción

El presente trabajo es una recopilación de todas las unidades de Ingles Instrumental vistas en clase, poniendo en práctica todos los conocimientos adquiridos en dicha cátedra.

Texto en Inglés
Technology is a broad concept that deals with human as well as other animal species' usage and knowledge of tools and crafts, and how it affects a species' ability to control and adapt to its environment. Technology is a term with origins in the Greek technología (τεχνολογία) — téchnē (τέχνη), 'craft' and -logía (-λογία), the study of something, or the branch of knowledge of a discipline. However, a strict definition is elusive; "technology" can refer to material objects of use to humanity, such as machines, hardware or utensils, but can also encompass broader themes, including systems, methods of organization, and techniques. The term can either be applied generally or to specific areas: examples include "construction technology", "medical technology", or "state-of-the-art technology".
The human species' use of technology began with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools. The prehistorical discovery of the ability to control fire increased the available sources of food and the invention of the wheel helped humans in travelling in and controlling their environment. Recent technological developments, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale. However, not all technology has been used for peaceful purposes; the development of weapons of ever-increasing destructive power has progressed throughout history, from clubs to nuclear weapons.
Technology has affected society and its surroundings in a number of ways. In many societies, technology has helped develop more advanced economies (including today's global economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products, known as pollution, and deplete natural resources, to the detriment of the Earth and its environment. Various implementations of technology influence the values of a society and new technology often raises new ethical questions. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, a term originally applied only to machines, and the challenge of traditional norms.
Philosophical debates have arisen over the present and future use of technology in society, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, and similar movements criticise the pervasiveness of technology in the modern world, opining that it harms the environment and alienates people; proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and techno-progressivism view continued technological progress as beneficial to society and the human condition. Indeed, until recently, it was believed that the development of technology was restricted only to human beings, but recent scientific studies indicate that other primates and certain dolphin communities have developed simple tools and learned to pass their knowledge to other generations
The Merriam-Webster dictionary offers a definition of the term: "the practical application of knowledge especially in a particular area" and "a capability given by the practical application of knowledge". Ursula Franklin, in her 1989 "Real World of Technology" lecture, gave another definition of the concept; it is "practice, the way we do things around here".The term is often used to imply a specific field of technology, or to refer to high technology or just consumer electronics, rather than technology as a whole. Bernard Stiegler, in Technics and Time, 1, defines technology in two ways: as "the pursuit of life by means other than life", and as "organized inorganic matter.
Technology can be most broadly defined as the entities, both material and immaterial, created by the application of mental and physical effort in order to achieve some value. In this usage, technology refers to tools and machines that may be used to solve real-world problems. It is a far-reaching term that may include simple tools, such as a crowbar or wooden spoon, or more complex machines, such as a space station or particle accelerator. Tools and machines need not be material; virtual technology, such as computer software and business methods, fall under this definition of technology. The word "technology" can also be used to refer to a collection of techniques. In this context, it is the current state of humanity's knowledge of how to combine resources to produce desired products, to solve problems, fulfill needs, or satisfy wants; it includes technical methods, skills, processes, techniques, tools and raw materials. When combined with another term, such as "medical technology" or "space technology", it refers to the state of the respective field's knowledge and tools. "State-of-the-art technology" refers to the high technology available to humanity in any field.
Technology can be viewed as an activity that forms or changes culture.Additionally, technology is the application of math, science, and the arts for the benefit of life as it is known. A modern example is the rise of communication technology, which has lessened barriers to human interaction and, as a result, has helped spawn new subcultures; the rise of cyberculture has, at its basis, the development of the Internet and the computer. Not all technology enhances culture in a creative way; technology can also help facilitate political oppression and war via tools such as guns. As a cultural activity, technology predates both science and engineering, each of which formalize some aspects of technological endeavor
The distinction between science, engineering and technology is not always clear. Science is the reasoned investigation or study of phenomena, aimed at discovering enduring principles among elements of the phenomenal world by employing formal techniques such as the scientific method.Technologies are not usually exclusively products of science, because they have to satisfy requirements such as utility, usability and safety.
Engineering is the goal-oriented process of designing and making tools and systems to exploit natural phenomena for practical human means, often (but not always) using results and techniques from science. The development of technology may draw upon many fields of knowledge, including scientific, engineering, mathematical, linguistic, and historical knowledge, to achieve some practical result.
Technology is often a consequence of science and engineering — although technology as a human activity precedes the two fields. For example, science might study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors, by using already-existing tools and knowledge. This new-found knowledge may then be used by engineers to create new tools and machines, such as semiconductors, computers, and other forms of advanced technology. In this sense, scientists and engineers may both be considered technologists; the three fields are often considered as one for the purposes of research and reference.
The exact relations between science and technology in particular have been debated by scientists, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part because the debate can inform the funding of basic and applied science. In immediate wake of World War II, for example, in the United States it was widely considered that technology was simply "applied science" and that to fund basic science was to reap technological results in due time. An articulation of this philosophy could be found explicitly in Vannevar Bush's treatise on postwar science policy, Science—The Endless Frontier: "New products, new industries, and more jobs require continuous additions to knowledge of the laws of nature... This essential new knowledge can be obtained only through basic scientific research." In the late-1960s, however, this view came under direct attack, leading towards initiatives to fund science for specific tasks (initiatives resisted by the scientific community). The issue remains contentious—though most analysts resist the model that technology simply is a result of scientific research

Categorias lexicales:
Palabras de contenido:
Animal
Technology
Model

Palabras de Función:
This
The
And

Sustantivo
Technology
Human
Basic


Verbo
To refer
Applied
Resisted

Adjetivo
New
Artificial
Essential

Adverbio

Widely
Generally
Freely

Articulo
The
And
This

Preposición
By
From
Over


Conjunción
Because
But
And

Demostrativos
This
That

Prefijos
Prehistorical
Remains
Improves

Sufijos
Funding
Available
Widely

Cognados Verdaderos
Animal
Internet
Computer


Cognados Falsos
Actual


Aproximación al Texto:
Skimming:


1.- ¿Cual es la Idea general del texto?
Que la tecnología es un concepto amplio que trata de humanos, así como el uso de especies de otros animales y el conocimiento de herramientas y artesanías, y cómo afecta a la capacidad de una especie a controlar y adaptarse a su medio ambiente.

2.- ¿Qué palabras se repiten?
Technology
Human
Computer

3.- ¿Qué palabras se parecen al español?
Animal
Internet
Computer

4.- ¿Cuáles son las palabras en negrita, el titulo, subtitulo o graficos que te ayudan a entender el texto?
Technology
Knowledge
Environment
Species



5.- ¿De que trata el texto? Lee el primer párrafo y el último o las ultimas ideas del último párrafo
La tecnología es un concepto amplio que trata de humanos, así como el uso de especies de otros animales y el conocimiento de herramientas y artesanías, y cómo afecta a la capacidad de una especie a controlar y adaptarse a su medio ambiente.
A finales de la década de 1960, sin embargo, este punto de vista fue objeto de ataque directo, lo que lleva a las iniciativas para financiar la ciencia para tareas específicas (las iniciativas de la resistencia de la comunidad científica). The issue remains contentious—though most analysts resist the model that technology simply is a result of scientific research. El tema sigue siendo polémico, aunque la mayoría de los analistas de resistir el modelo de que la tecnología sólo es el resultado de la investigación científica

Patrones de Organización de un Párrafo:
Marcadores de Definición
for example
such as
refers to

Marcadores de Secuencia:
Continue
Following

Marcadores de tiempo
In the late-1960s
In 1989
Iin the late 20th century.


Reflexión:
Todas las unidades vistas en inglés instrumental fueron de gran ayuda al momento de analizar lo que dice un texto en ingles, no traduciendolo palabra por palabra, sino teniendo una idea general de lo que trata.

Fuentes Consultadas:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technology

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